There are powers which are available under the Public Health (Control of Disease) Act 1984 and these contain powers for the Secretary of State for Health to make provision for the purpose of preventing, protecting against, controlling or providing a public health response to the incidence or spread of infection or contamination in England and Wales (whether from risks originating there or elsewhere). These provisions have been available for many years. The Act permits regulations to be made imposing duties on registered medical practitioners or other persons to record and notify cases or suspected cases of infection or contamination, as well as )conferring on local authorities or other persons functions in relation to the monitoring of public health risks, and imposing or enabling the imposition of restrictions or requirements on or in relation to persons, things or premises in the event of, or in response to, a threat to public health. Any powers are subject to restrictions or requirements proportionate to what is sought to be achieved by imposing the requirements or restrictions.
Health protection regulations may—
(a)confer functions on local authorities and other persons;
(c)enable a court to order a person convicted of any such offence to take or pay for remedial action in appropriate circumstances;
(d)provide for the execution and enforcement of restrictions and requirements imposed by or under the regulations;
(e)provide for appeals from and reviews of decisions taken under the regulations;
(f)permit or prohibit the levy of charges;
(g)permit or require the payment of incentive payments, compensation and expenses;
(h)provide for the resolution of disputes.
The Act provides for the creation of health offences which carry fines up to £100 per day.